Hypertension is one of the most common medical problems of the world population. It is very serious because it is silent and only recognized by lesions of the affected organs. It is a vascular disease of the whole organism and leaves “marks” in the affected organs: heart, brain, kidneys, blood vessels and vision.
There are two forms of treatment: with and without drugs.
The treatment without drugs is intended to assist in lowering blood pressure, and if possible avoid the complications and risks through changes in attitudes and ways of living, they are:
- Reducing body weight by calorie controlled diet, replace fats of vegetable oils, sugars and to reduce the increase intake of fibers
- Reduce salt, sausages, canned, preserved, cod, beef jerky and cheese snacks
- Reduce alcohol consumption
- Exercising regularly 30-45 minutes, three to five times per week
- Quitting smoking
- Monitor changes in blood fats (dislipemias), avoiding foods that increase triglycerides as sugars, honey, molasses, brown sugar, alcohol and high in cholesterol or saturated fats, lard, cracklings, whole milk, butter, cream, sausage, salami, ham, fried foods, seafood, kids, chicken skin, tripe, calf's foot jelly, egg yolk, beef fat, palm oil, cashew, peanuts, chocolate and ice cream
- Manage stress
- Reducing salt is very important for hypertensive black race, because in them is more severe hypertensive and cardiovascular causes more accidents, requiring constant and periodic medical controls
- Avoid drugs that raise blood pressure, oral contraceptives, anti-inflammatory, appetite suppressants, decongestants, antidepressants, steroids, ergot derivatives, stimulants (amphetamines), caffeine, cocaine and others.
Drug treatment aims to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality in hypertensive patients. So far, the reduction of disease and mortality in patients with mild and moderate hypertension has been demonstrated convincingly with the routine use of drugs on the market. In severe hypertensive and / or malignant, the therapeutic difficulties are far greater. The correct choice of medication to treat hypertension is a task of the physician.
In primary or essential hypertension, treatment is nonspecific and requires special attention by the physician. The secondary hypertension has no specific treatment, for example, surgery in tumors adrenal gland or drugs in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Drug treatment should observe the following principles:
- The drug should be orally effective and well tolerated
- It should allow the few daily doses
- Treatment should be started with the smallest possible doses and gradually increased if necessary or combined with others, with minimal complications
- The drug must be cost compatible with the socioeconomic conditions of the patient to allow continuity of care
- The most serious problem in drug treatment of hypertension is that it may be necessary for life. Then we be convinced of the need for treatment is very important for the patient to have a permanent adherence
- The controls should be medical journals for the adjustment of drug dosages and monitoring the evolution of cardiovascular disease
Questions you can ask your doctor
- What is high blood pressure?
- What level of my blood pressure?
- Should I check my blood pressure at home?
- What can happen to me if I do not treat high blood pressure?
- What are the side effects of treatment?